Skip to main content

Environmental Law in Morocco: Opportunities and Challenges

Elhoucine Chougrani

elni Review 2016, Issue 2, pp. 86-89. https://doi.org/10.46850/elni.2016.013

Environmental law is an age-old subject of debate in Morocco. So the Moroccan doctrine and NGOs have advised developing effective environmental law in the country. Morocco is now defined as a ‘water-stressed’ country, with a strong energy dependency, limited economic growth and social development policies, weakness to create job opportunities and reduce social and spatial disparities between regions and generations. However, Morocco can build capacities to adapt to vulnerability due to climate change. In attempting to solve some difficulties and problems, this paper examines the opportunities and the challenges in applying environmental law and enforce sustainable development goals.
The contribution focuses on the legal framework to protect the environment, describes how to integrate environmental dimensions in public policy and looks into the opportunities and specific challenges for environmental protection.

Access full article

References

  1. Tim Hayward. “Greening the Constitutional State: Environmental Rights in the European Union“, In: John Barry and Robyn Eckersley (eds.): The State and the Global Ecological Crisis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: 2005), pp. 75-95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/6439.003.0010.
  2. Marie Claire Cordonier Segger and Ashfaq Khalfan. Sustainable development law. Principles, practices and prospects (Oxford University Press, 2004). DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199276707.003.0014.
  3. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, UN G.A RES 70/1 on September 25, 2015.
  4. Boutaina Ismaili Idrissi. “Analysis of Morocco European Union partnership within the framework of the Advanced Status. Main features and challenges“.
  5. United Nations, 5 June 1992, Convention on Biologial Diversity (CBD).
  6. United Nation, 17 June 1994, Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa.
  7. Projet d’Adaptation au Changement Climatique au Maroc (PACC): vers des Oasis résilientes.
  8. Morocco intended Nationality determined contribution (INDC) under the UNFCCC: COP21, France November- December 2015.
  9. WCED. Our common future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).
  10. Conseil Economique et social. Economie verte. Opportunités de création des richesses et d’’emploi (Rabat: CESE, 2012).
  11. Law No. 13-09 on renewable energy, regulated by Decree 2-10-578 (2010)
  12. Law No. 47-09 on Energy Efficiency (2011).
  13. Law No. 16-09, creating the Moroccan Agency for Development of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ADEREE).
  14. Law 57-09, creating the Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy (MASEN) (2010).
  15. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Office for North Africa. The Green economy in Morocco: A strategic goal involving partnership dynamics and intensified coordination of policies and initiatives (UNECA, 2014).
  16. USA. Department of State: Investment Climate Statement 2015.
  17. Arthur Neslen. Morocco poised to become a solar superpower with launch of desert mega-project, In: The Guardian.
  18. WB. Morocco Takes the Long View on Green Growth.
  19. Brown Weiss: Climate Change, Intergenerational Equity, and International Law.
  20. Nicholas Stern Review (2007): The Economics of Climate change.
  21. Joseph E. Stiglitz, Amartya Sen and Jean-Paul Fitoussi. Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress (2009).
  22. World Bank. Kingdom of Morocco Climate Change Strategy Notes, Report No: ACS7031 (WB: December 28, 2013).
  23. Joan Martinez-Alier. The Environmentalism of the Poor. A Study of Ecological Conflicts and Valuation (UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2002).
  24. James D. Ford, Lea Berrang-Ford (Editors), 2011, Climate Change Adaptation in Developed Nations. From Theory to Practice. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0567-8.
  25. Thomas S. Kuhn. The Structure of Scientific revolutions. With an introductory essay by Ian Hacking (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2012).